Type 2 diabetes

Also called fat or maturity diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is a metabolic disease characterized by a chronic excess of sugar in the blood (hyperglycemia).

The regulation of blood sugar (glucose) in the body involves:

► The contribution of sugar (mainly food);

► Making 'internal' sugar (primarily the liver);

► The sugar use by the cells: insulin, an hormone made by the pancreas allowing cells to capture and use glucose.

In NIDDM (non-insulin dependent diabetes), there is poor regulation of the system, typically with an insulin resistance state: to maintain a constant blood sugar, the body needs more insulin because it becomes less efficient. Even large amounts of insulin are not enough to use the circulating glucose that accumulates in the blood: this is hypoglycemia. Eventually, the pancreas gets tired of this constant stimulation and can then no longer produce enough insulin: is insulin-necessistance.

These insulin-resistance and necessitance mechanisms particularly affect overweight people.